From the Field

One Square Meter of Prairie

January 8, 2019

The author photographing a square meter plot. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

The richness of life in prairies can be astounding, even at a small scale.  As a prairie ecologist, I see that every day as I wander through them with my camera or clipboard, but it can be hard to portray that to a skeptical public.

Photography has been a crucial tool in my crusade, giving me the opportunity to introduce people to the plants and animals that inhabit what so many people consider “boring grassy areas”.

In 2018, I undertook a new project to celebrate the diversity and beauty of prairies.  It was a way of doubling down on my frequent assertions that you can find an astounding number of species in prairies if you just take the time to look for them.

To prove the point, I went to a small restored prairie near my Nebraska house and then chose a much smaller portion of it – a 1×1 meter square – and pledged to photograph everything I could within that diminutive fragment over the course of a year.

Butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa). Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

I began in late January, 2018.  As of today, I’ve photographed 113 different species of plants and animals inside that little patch – not counting others that flew, scurried, or hopped away before I could snap their picture.  I’ve made nearly 50 trips across town to my plot and have yet to come away disappointed.  During the field season, nearly every visit yielded at least one new species.

Clearly, most of the species I photographed within my plot didn’t spend their entire lives within that tiny area.

The diversity I found was dependent upon the surrounding prairie, though even that larger prairie is only a few acres in size and fragmented by several patches of trees.  The prairie is also fairly new – planted by Prairie Plains Resource Institute in the early 1980’s.

Cope’s gray tree frog. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

Many people might be surprised to find 113 plant and animal species within a small unassuming prairie nestled between a suburban neighborhood and a corn field, let along within a single square meter of it. That is pretty much the crux of the project.

A beetle on Maximilian sunflower. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

Among the eighteen beetle species is bright red one that, like monarch caterpillars, feeds exclusively on milkweed plants.  Another decapitates sunflowers so it can lay eggs inside the exposed stem.

The seven spider species I found within the plot represent a range of hunting strategies, including some that catch food in webs, but also some that stalk and/or ambush their prey.

Arabesque orbweaver (Neoscana arabesca) on Maximilian sunflower. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

I was thrilled to photograph two different monarch butterflies inside the plot, the more so because of their current population declines.

However, I was equally excited by the sunflower stem that looked like a miniscule woodpecker had drilled a hole into it – clear evidence of a stem borer moth caterpillar at work.

A soldier beetle on Maximilian sunflower. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

The most diverse group of insects found in my square meter was the flies.  There were twenty one different kinds of flies, including some that resemble the familiar house fly, but others that few people would recognize as flies.

For example, a bee-mimicking hover fly was a common visitor throughout much of the season.  I also photographed a crane fly that looks like a massive mosquito and a gall midge with an ovipositor (tubular egg-laying organ) as long as its body.

My favorite of the flies, though, was Delphinia picta, a gorgeous picture-winged fly that looks like it’s wearing a gas mask, feeds on rotting vegetation, and blows bubbles as part of its courtship behavior.

A hover fly on dewy grass. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

Despite the impressive diversity of organisms I found, this project was about much more than biological inventory.  I found myself inspired to photograph tiny feathery anthers on the flowers of grasses, an exquisite network of veins in a backlit leaf, and gracefully drooping petals of flowers as they wilted.

Because I confined my exploration to such a limited geography, I looked at the prairie in new ways.  Eschewing my typical photography approach of roaming broadly across prairies, looking for something of interest, I instead sat down and examined my plot inch by inch for appealing subject matter.  I always found it.  I hope others will find it among my photographs.

Monarch butterfly. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

It would be great if thousands of people were sufficiently moved by my project to go explore the nearest prairie.  It would be great, but I’m not counting on it.  Instead, I’d be thrilled if people took a moment, looked through some of my photos, and thought to themselves, “huh, I had no idea there was so much going on in prairies!”

Just as it’s easier to empathize with people in far-off places after you’ve met a few of them, seeing some of what lives in prairies makes those prairies harder to dismiss as “boring grassy areas.”  I love prairies and want to see them conserved.  Showing others what I love is an important step in that process.

Stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus) and hazy sunrise. Photo © Chris Helzer / TNC

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  1. We have been doing something similar in El Paso, Texas for several years now. We go to the same short loop trail, called the Nature Walk Trail, in Franklin Mountains State Park almost every weekend and photograph whatever we spot. We then post at least 4 dated photos a day on our Facebook page: It has turned into an interesting collection of plants, flowers, insects, birds, and other animals. Our idea is to illustrate the natural diversity on the 8 acres of land inside the trail, which is only a small part of the 27,000 acre state park and an even smaller part of the Chihuahuan Desert.

  2. Beautiful photos! Prairies are so diverse and species rich. With the deep roots of the plants, they are drought resistant, erosion preventers and enrich soils and lives. Keep up the good work.

  3. Very cool. Thanks for sharing. You inspire me to do the same on my Klein Prairie restoration near Murrayville, IL.

  4. Such beautiful photos and thanks for the numbers of types of flies, etc. I will share with my environmental science students here in Illinois.

  5. Considering what is happening with our national parks with the littering and literal crap everywhere, I’m not so sure you would be interested in thousands of people visiting prairies.

    1. I’d say prairies with litter and crap are infinitely better than extinct prairies covered in pavement or crops because no one cared enough about them to preserve them.

    2. agree with the idea of at least, with exposure & an attempt at education and relating, there is a much better chance of connecting than if the opportunity did not exist.

  6. What a wonderful project to undertake! Thank you for sharing your work with us.

  7. I am looking forward to attending your presentation in Lincoln tomorrow night. I love your photos and descriptions of what is in them. I want to spend more time in our yard looking for visitors to the plants.

  8. I remember doing this kind of observation on a girl scout outing. Your pictures are beautiful!

  9. Thank you for writing this article. I thoroughly loved seeing some of your photos and the idea of going back to the same spot to really see the diversity of life. Ya gotta love a prairie!

  10. Chris, this is wonderful! I’m doing a similar project in my own backyard and writing about it on my blog ( Last year I started transforming my garden to native plants, and am using iNaturalist to document the biodiversity I find among the plants. I’ve found it incredibly rewarding to see how many species of pollinators and other insects are living here with me.

  11. Love this panoply to the god of small things! Here’s to taking time to not just look but study!

  12. I live in the middle of Cambridge, Massachusetts and I have about a 16 square foot plot of what I call “meadow” in front of my house. I have planted a few things in it–some asters, for instance–but most of what fills it to overflowing are what my Mother used to call volunteers, wonderful things that just appear. Every year there is a somewhat different suite of volunteer plants. This past fall I had three kinds of goldenrod, bursting with a wondrous variety of insects. My best visitor though was a praying mantis! No landscape is “boring”–in fact nothing is boring if you take some time to study it. Thank you for your wonderful project.

  13. What a wonderful article! I would love to see more of your photos. Am so happy to see new prairies established! Keep up the good work.

  14. This was obviously done in the Tall Grass Prairie which is virtually all under cultivation now because it is on some of the best soil in the world. It should not be confused with the Mid-grass or Short-grass prairies. It is an excellent work for an entomologist, but it is woefully unsatisfactory from a botany stand point. None of the iconic species of tall grass such as big bluestem, little bluestem, cane bluestem (all different genera), reed grass, Indian grass, etc. It neglects the beautiful forbs like bush morning glory, vervain, leadplant, gayfeather, larkspur, lupine mint, bee balm and a host of others. Therefore I was quite disappointed.

    1. I cannot understand your comment. Yes, his observations were made in a small remnant of tallgrass prairie which would not have been possible if it had all been destroyed per your comment. Yes, about 98% of tallgrass prairie has been destroyed but the Flint Hills of Kansas has much of the large, remaining tallgrass in areas such as the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Konza Prairie, Chase Lake Prairie, and others. Other small remnants exist. You imply that big bluestem and Indiangrass are missing but they are plainly visible in his photograph. Great plants such as bush morningglories generally aren’t found in the tallgrass prairie but on gravel breaks, rock outcrops, and sandhills habitats more characteristic of mid-grass and sandhills prairies. Their absence doesn’t make this prairie less valuable. The author was trying to show how incredibly diverse even a small patch of prairie can be and he accomplished that admirably. If he can help people appreciate the value and diversity of even small prairies, maybe more tallgrass and other prairie remnants will be protected.

    2. Donald, if you’re interested, you can click the link to my more in-depth page on this project. There you’ll find plenty of plant photos. There were 15 plant species within the square meter – not great for remnant eastern tallgrass prairie, but pretty respectable for a restored western tallgrass prairie (former cropland), which this was.

  15. A wonderful exploration! Beautiful!

    As an art teacher one of the challenges I gave my kids was to mark off a square foot of field or lawn (or wherever we were) and draw what they could find. Everyone had a magnifying glass.

    The kids loved it…and I did too!

  16. Brilliant, well written article on the many aspects of a prairie…prairie up!!!

  17. So much exposed here in picture and in text! Thank you for giving our precious prairies inhabitants a voice.

  18. Wonderful article. Hope it encourages people to slow down and look.

  19. Cool project! And nice companion with David Haskell’s The Forest Unseen.

  20. I’ve been doing something similar in Houston Texas, photographing and writing about what I encounter in Buffalo Bayou Park, which is part of a prairie restoration effort along the Gulf Coast. I had not thought about a meter square project and I am fascinated and thrilled to see all you have done. Inspired, I will be doing the same in my park. How did you select your square meter? As I contemplate the same, the initial selection seems to be somewhat important. Thanks so much for the work and for sharing it.

    1. Hi Alisa, I’m glad you enjoyed the project! I chose my square meter based mostly on convenience (easy to get to) but also made sure it had a couple plant species in it that I thought would attract insects. It’s a pretty typical square meter within the prairie around it, but I did just make sure it had the previous year’s skeletons of butterfly milkweed, ironweed, and the two sunflower species. Most everything else was a surprise!

  21. Excellent! And I like the comparison to meeting people from other places.

  22. Your pictures aren’t just beautiful, they are technically exquisite! This project should be shared extensively across the country. Great job!

  23. Thank you for sharing your wonderful photos! We are fortunate to live near some beautiful Champaign County (IL) Forest Preserve tall grass prairie & forested parks, where we walk (w/dog) almost every day. Thanks to my iPhone, I’ve had the opportunity to take thousands & thousands of photos in every season of nature’s wonders. You are an inspiration!

  24. It would be really interesting to revisit in depth this same exact patch of Prairie periodically to see how it evolves. There’s no way this patch has attained it’s end state.

  25. Very interesting and inspiring. What a fun project that can make a difference. Thank you for sharing this article and your beautiful photos. Young students would love this project as well as myself (much older).

  26. I fell in love with prairie from a picture in a book when I was just a kid, maybe 11 years old. When the chance came, I transferred from a college in Oregon to a college in Montana and have lived mostly on one kind of prairie or another since then (I’m much, much older now). I have found that living here requires me to slow down and savor the sights and sounds around me. I am always amazed at what there is to see and I have never seen a sunset here that did not dazzle me. I do miss the mountains of my childhood (northern California) but have no desire to go back. This is my home.

  27. Exploring in your own yard will enlighten as well! All you need to do is go outside and open you eyes!! Those fabulous prairies will draw you in once you learn to see.

  28. “I took a vacation this summer and made it half way across the meadow.” Paraphrased I think somewhat and author unknown. I too live in Nebraska and have converted lowland river [Niobrara] meadows to CRP and added pollinator plots this year. Very much enjoyed this article. Thanks.

  29. Thanks for the lovely photos and the story of interdependence in the tiny plot of Earth.

  30. I think this is/was a wonderful project, and I am thankful that you did it, and shared it. It is vaguely reminiscent of the “Big Sit,” version of N. J. Audubon’s World Series of Birding, ion which one can choose to stay put, at one spot,rather than scour the state, or a county, trying to identify as many species of birds one can see, usually on the 2nd Saturday of May.

  31. Very intriguing work. Would make for an interesting in-depth book, perhaps?

  32. Lovely report on prairies and yes life abounds in the smallest of areas. And now I know why my sunflowers are sometimes decapitated. I thought the birds did it but no it is some kind of beetle. Thanks for sharing your insights.

  33. I am reminded of the poem by Emily Dickenson: To Make a Prairie it Takes a Clover and One Bee

    To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee
    One clover, and a bee,
    And revery.
    The revery alone will do
    If bees are few.

    We may have to rely on revery (daydreaming) to conjure up prairies if our bee populations continue to decline. So thank you Chris Helzer for what you are doing to document life on the prairie. May your work inspire humanity to conserve and protect them.

  34. I enjoyed browsing through your photographs and being able to see the insects and spider closeup in all their color and intricate body parts. Wonderful photography! Makes me want to take a photography course!

  35. wonderful photos and article, thank you.
    would love to read more about your views of
    our beautiful, bountiful, natural world.

  36. Gorgeous photography which reminds us to look around and really see nature, the large and the little.

  37. Dear Chris,
    To show the uniqueness and rich diversity of such a small space is inspiring. We need to protect this area
    and other islands like it to give ecological purpose to our landscapes. Keep up the good work!!
    Ann Young, Colorado Springs, CO.

  38. Thank you. I do the same, but not with such good technique! Where can we see the others in the series?

  39. Very interesting! I’m so glad to read of the biodiversity that you witnessed and captured with your camera. I also am always astounded and delighted by all the various plants, insects, spiders, and “critters” that I see in my own backyard! Keep up the great work you are doing to share the variety and beauty of nature all around us, everywhere,everyday.

  40. I totally applaud your effort. I must say we have done about the same thing, in a slightly different way, on our land in Kansas, and as we work the land and the vineyards. Insects, animals, birds, plants and flowers each with their food sources and and reproductive methods. The prairies are distinctive and offer up opportunities every time you are out in them. The various kinds of bees and various kinds of mice are all around us, if you look closely. We photograph with the iPhone, but document.

  41. What a joy to look at your photos and read about what you are doing. Living in Portland, Or. we don’t have prairies nearby but could certainly take up a similar experience in a forest. Maybe I’ll try soon. I’m inspired.

  42. I loved the article on all the interesting things you see in the prairie. I had no idea so much could go on in the prairie, and the photographs are amazing!!!!

  43. As a native of Nebraska, I have always loved the “boring, grassy areas!” Thanks for showing the rest of the world what wonders we can find if we just have eyes that see. Lovely photos!

  44. Prairies are all over. Two states away is the Chicago Botanic Garden. They built a large area of prairie environments: xeric gravel upland, savanna, wetland, and lake. Iconic species like cardinal flower are identified by interpretive plaques. Served by commuter rail and a hiking trail, the gardens are not far from the Loop. More removed is Volo Bog (or fen), a remnant of the ice age. And downtown Chicago constructed small prairie areas in Millennium Park.

  45. It is amazing the diversity that can be found in small spaces. Even in my small backyard I find it surprising.What’s more is the tenacity of these little creatures to survive despite living in an urban environment. I wish more people would take such pleasure in the natural world. Thank you for the wonderful photos!

  46. I love your photos and the hopefulness I got reading about the carious species that passed through your plot. Very cool!

  47. Thank you so much for your comments and pictures! As a gardener, with my nose at plant and bug level, I agree that you see fascinating things that would escape your notice if you were just walking by. It’s good for all of us to slow down. I live in Rochester, NY, and can’t wait to visit some real prairies when we do some road trips to the middle of our country.

  48. Wow, your photos are amazing, and your tenacious inspection of this small plot is inspirational. The world needs more nature heroes like you. I do a tiny version of this routinely in my outdoor adventures and in my yard with mostly natives plants, and have been stunned how “if you plant it they will come”. Most mind blowing was the year I started swamp milkweed from seed, had one lone plant, and came back from a trip to find a Monarch caterpillar munching away?

  49. Prairies are home to a wide variety of species and provide food and cover to many more! We just need to ‘Stop and smell the flowers’, and enjoy whatever else may be visiting!

  50. I drove to CO through Iowa City, IA in 2014 and 2015, from MD. I was thrilled to see large fields of grasses and wildflowers near the hotel where I stayed and the restaurant where I ate. I was even more thrilled to see the birds in those beautiful fields ! On my second trip in 2015 I was stunned to see that several of the large fields had beenstripped of vegitation , into prepare for construction of large buildings ! I was heart-sick. Iowa City is a university town . I expected that the local government would have known the value of undisturbed land!!!!!!!

  51. What a wonderful project/article. I am a member of the Native Prairie Assn. of Texas (NPAT). I was able to contribute substantially to help save a prairie remnant near Dallas last year. NPAT and articles like this are helping to inform people of the importance of biodiversity which is what prairies are all about.

  52. Beautiful pictures. Thank you for sharing your passion and making me think twice when I pass a “prairie.”

  53. Thanks for sharing your thoughts and prairie pictures. To me prairies are ever bit if not more beautiful than mountains. I restored a wild flower/native grass prairie in SW Minnesota which was a vast tall grass prairie habitat once and lose myself in enjoyment whenever I wonder through it. We need to keep restoring more of them.

  54. Your story made me think of two quotes that I like. The first, by Willa Cather ” Anybody can love the mountains, but it takes a soul to love the prairie.” The second is from the book” Bringing Nature Home, How You Can Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants” by Douglas W. Tallamy, and it is “knowledge generates interest, and interest generates compassion”. I love the prairie and photographing it’s inhabitants also. I hope that your project will convince a lot of people of the value and beauty of the prairies!

  55. Would love to see the whole series of photos! I’ve had a fantastic time exploring my own small city lot which is continuing to build a community of native plants and natural soils. Amazing finds of insects & others when you look closely & take the time to identify & learn a bit about them. And yes, what you said “Just as it’s easier to empathize with people in far-off places after you’ve met a few of them, seeing some of what lives in prairies makes those prairies harder to dismiss as “boring grassy areas.” I love prairies and want to see them conserved. Showing others what I love is an important step in that process.” I am heartened to see each and every endeavor put forth of another human who sees the value of life besides their own! Thank you

  56. I love the prairie too! Thank you for capturing the beauty of the diversity that is the prairie community.

  57. These photographs are simple wonderful ! I gave my husband a digital camera for his birthday last year and will give him the challenge of photographing our small prairie planting this year!!

  58. I love the prairie also. I live in Cardston Alberta,and the prairie winter just blows me away (pun intended) . the sunrises are incredible and watching the drifting snow is fascinating .

  59. This is so similar to a requirement for the Environmental Science merit badge which is required to earn Eagle rank for Scouts BSA! My son will work on it this summer. Can’t wait to show him your blog!
    “Choose two outdoor study areas that are very different from one another (e.g., hilltop vs. bottom of a hill; field vs. forest; swamp vs. dry land). For BOTH study areas, do ONE of the following:
    a. Mark off a plot of 4 square yards in each study area, and count the number of species found there. Estimate how much space is occupied by each plant species and the type and number of nonplant species you find. Write a report that adequately discusses the biodiversity and population density of these study areas. Discuss your report with your counselor.
    b. Make at least three visits to each of the two study areas (for a total of six visits), staying for at least 20 minutes each time, to observe the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Space each visit far enough apart that there are readily apparent differences in the observations. Keep a journal that includes the differences you observe. Then, write a short report that adequately addresses your observations, including how the differences of the study areas might relate to the differences noted, and discuss this with your counselor.”

  60. Very nice. This reminds me of the farm pastures of my childhood. There aren’t many of those left.

  61. The Oxley Nature Center staff in Tulsa used to offer a citizen science program for middle school students. At one station teams of 4-6 students would fling a hula hoop into our prairie to mark the boundaries of a random plot roughly a meter across. We told them they had to RUN to get to their plot, to document things that might be flying or hopping or slithering out of the hoop. Imagine 4-5 teams of teens racing across a prairie screaming in excitement! We found astounding diversity in each small target plot.

  62. I love this effort of combining the arts to promote and record nature through citizen science.
    Thank you all. Please take the time to visit our website and watch our film about pollinators. We have many links on our FB page to further encourage pollinator projects and education.

  63. What an amazing post! I want to thank you for enriching my day. You photos took me right to your 1+1 meter and will keep me there thru out my day. A wonderful job!

  64. […] matter of the more I look, the more I find. Intensely watching a defined area was the subject of a year-long project by a Nebraska employee of The Nature Conservancy. I’ve always enjoyed Chris Helzer’s blog about […]

  65. Yard by yard we can make a positive difference to restore native habitat and ecosystems. This can be done in an attractive design that meets local zoning standards, reduces the use of our precious water and does not require the use of chemicals. Open areas, with out shrubs and gardens, can benefit by the use of No-Mow native grasses that grow eight inches high or less, and native ground covers. These are good for establishing healthy soils and reducing labor. Traditional lawns can be limited to paths among the landscape and areas for activities such croquet and entertaining around the picnic table.

    Hopefully, if enough of us can change our mindset and learn how to garden in a sustainable manner we will be able to save our butterflies, fireflies, bees, and the insects that all birds need to feed their young.
    One of the major challenges is helping people learn about the importance of insects, and how to deal and cope with them without using chemicals. One of the benefits of a native landscape is to observe
    the diversity of the living creatures through out the seasons. These landscapes provide the food, water, and shelter needed.

  66. Thanks so much for the interesting article and photos! The time and effort you put into this is sincerely appreciated!

  67. Thank you for your fabulous photographs and blog! I have considered doing this for several years, though not in a prairie setting – I plan on doing something similar in measured section of my backyard. Thank you for the inspiration!!

  68. What type of lens is being used? In the top/lead picture to begin with.

  69. Your photos are lovely! So much goes on if only you stop and observe. Close to 50 years ago in Girl Scouts, I learned another way to look closely at nature, to slow down & appreciate the details : The 100 inch hike.
    All you need is 110 inches of string, 2 twigs or pencils (even 2 shoes), an area that isn’t paved and one or more budding Naturalists that are willing to lay down on their tummies to look closely. Oh, and a careful survey of the area first to move any examples of squishy or smelly decomposing nature from the tummy areas! *G* Suburban mowed grass lawns are the last choice, as they contain the fewest examples of interesting nature. Wild meadows or woods are great, swamps are too, but you have to wade and use floats as start & end points.

    Once you stretch out your string and anchor the ends by tying them to twigs/pencils shoved into the ground (or to the shoes), then you start at one end and caterpillar crawl (or kneel) along the line, observing & recording what you see. Using your cell phone doesn’t count! You’ll be surprised what you find on close-up inspection, so many things that you’d miss just walking through the area. Just as you found more in a 1 meter plot that you’d missed when hiking through the whole prairie.

  70. we lived for decades about 40 miles form Prairie State park in southwest Missouri. my husband and I spent many days and evenings and early mornings there. the park had a herd of bison that were free roaming, at least within the 7,000 acre conservation area. pumpkin colored bison calves were one thing we looked forward to each spring. The Indian Paintbrush flowering was my favorite reason for a trip there. wildflower hikes and just deciding to drive there and walk around was glorious. when I taught elementary grades we took a field trip each spring. never were the children disappointed. we have moved to a different state now and though there are no prairies we are finding new, seasonal features to look forward to and enjoy.

    Diane Parker – Farmington, Maine

  71. This is wonderful. I appreciate the difference between looking for something interesting and looking- then being interested!❤️