The Mystery of the Dying Mesquites

If a tree dies in the desert, will anyone notice before it's too late?

At first, Leonard Warren noticed a dying tree here and there as he walked along the river’s edge. Their yellow leaves stood out, but he didn’t find it especially unusual. He was working as a field biologist at the time, studying desert songbirds, and he spent a lot of time in riparian areas. It soon became apparent that this was not an isolated case. The trees were dying throughout the valley. Rapidly.

Warren, now the Amargosa River project manager for The Nature Conservancy, became alarmed at this rapid die-off. The affected tree was screwbean mesquite (Prosopis pubescens), an ecologically important tree throughout the U.S. Southwest. The tree lined the Amargosa River, a waterway that flows above and below ground through southern Nevada and eastern California before sinking underground in Death Valley. In the desert environment, riparian areas like the Amargosa Valley provided critical habitat for migrating birds and many other species. The screwbean mesquite was a prominent component of that habitat.

Warren’s research into the topic revealed two disturbing facts. The first was that screwbean mesquites were dying across their range. The second was that almost no one knew the cause, and few were even looking into it.

In an era of disappearing species, the screwbean mesquite’s story was overlooked and untold.

“We are at risk of losing this species before we even understand what is going on,” says Warren.

Dead screwbean trees in Shoshone, California. Photo © Leonard Warren / TNC

The screwbean mesquite is found from southeastern California into southern Nevada, and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico.

Several journal articles have reported on the disappearance of these trees, beginning with Bertin W. Anderson’s 2007 paper on the decline of screwbean mesquite in the Lower Colorado River Valley.

Andrerson wrote, “Unless there is sudden reversal of the trend that has been developing since at least 2005, screwbean appear to be headed for drastic reduction and, perhaps, extinction in the lower Colorado River Valley. Any drastic reduction in the numbers of screwbean mesquite without replacement would have a huge negative impact on wildlife, especially birds.”

There has not been a reversal. In fact, the dying trees have now been documented throughout the species’ range. A survey of the species, published the journal BioOne in 2014, found that screwbean mesquite had disappeared from more than one-third of the places it occurred a century ago. In many places, the disappearance had happened within the last 20 years. The survey also found that there was no place where screwbean mesquite was increasing in numbers.

Even areas identified in these reports as having healthy screwbean mesquite populations, like Nevada’s Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, have since experienced significant loss of trees.

Despite the research, few conservationists are aware of the dying trees. And while there are theories and anecdotes, the reason behind the disappearing mesquites remains a mystery. Leonard Warren wants to change that.

“I will bend the ear of anyone who will listen,” he says. “I am sure some consider me a thorn in their side. I just want there to be research into what is going on with this decline. I want people to pay attention the issue.”

A screwbean seed pod. Photo © Leonard Warren / TNC

Food and Shelter in the Desert

Perhaps the most recognizable feature of a screwbean mesquite is its seedpod. The pod is gnarly and thick, protecting its nutrient rich seeds from wildlife. But a variety of animals still feast on the seeds, including birds, native rodents and even coyotes.

But the seeds are not the only way the screwbean mesquite provides for wildlife. The structure of the trees provides the ideal cover for many bird species, creating a desert oasis. Black-tailed gnatcatchers, loggerhead shrike, verdin, Bewick’s wren and many other species use the trees for cover year round. Endangered least Bell’s vireo use screwbean mesquite for nesting.

Each year, the flowering of the mesquite draws pollinating insects, which in turn provide food for insect-eating migratory birds. These birds time their migrations around this annual flowering. The migrants also use riparian areas as a resting spot after a difficult journey across the desert. A variety of warbler species, red-breasted and red-naped sapsuckers, northern flickers and others all rely on the habitat provided by screwbean mesquite.

“If the screwbean mesquite disappears, it will be a huge loss for migrating and desert riparian birds,” says Warren. “The tree is such a critical part of the ecosystem. We may not know the full ecological impact of its loss until 20, 40 or 100 years after it’s gone. But it will be a severe loss for riparian habitat in the desert Southwest.”

Screwbean flowers. Photo © Curtis Clark / Wikimedia Commons

Speculation and the Need for Science

The research papers on screwbean mesquites have all offered possible causes for the disappearance. Many local conservationists and community members have also made observations that they believe identify the ecological culprit. But actual proof remains elusive.

“This has to be framed as a mystery,” says Warren. “Right now, so many of the ideas about the cause are speculative.”

For instance, near Warren’s residence in Shoshone, California, many community members noticed that screwbean mesquites started dying after tamarisk control. Tamarisks are an invasive plant species, notorious for their water use along desert rivers. Extensive control efforts have been aimed at removing the trees. In Shoshone, as in many areas, herbicides were used to remove the trees.

A healthy screwbean tree. Photo © Leonard Warren / TNC

“After they used herbicide on the tamarisks, the screwbean mesquites started dying,” says Warren.

He noted that in nearby Beatty, Nevada – along the same river – the invasive control effort used mainly mechanical methods rather than herbicides. That area is one of the few locales where screwbean mesquites are not dying.

However, this is a good point to remind everyone that correlation does not necessarily mean causation. “Experts have pointed out that screwbean mesquites are dying in many places where there has been no tamarisk control,” says Warren. “Again, there is speculation but we need range-wide research.”

Research papers often identify drought and human changes to desert rivers – including both dams and loss of water flows – as potential causes.

The 2014 article in the journal BioOne by Steven A. Foldi asserts, “This is the first example of a declining species that is typically considered drought tolerant and is often found farther away from the stream course. Human alteration of rivers is therefore likely to be influencing plant communities as far away as a kilometer from the river itself.”

Climate change could be exacerbating the problem. Warren notes that night time temperatures in the desert are trending higher, and it is possible that screwbean mesquites need cooler nights to thrive.

The final suspect in this mystery is a potential pathogen. Around the world, invasive diseases and pests are wiping out native trees. Some have received a lot of press, like the Dutch elm disease and hemlock woolly adelgid wreaking havoc in eastern forests. Could something similar be happening with screwbean mesquite?

Stacy M. Hishinuma, a forest entomologist with the Forest Service, surveys dead screwbean trees. Photo © Leonard Warren / TNC

Recently, a tree pathologist and tree entomologist have begun taking tissue samples of screwbean mesquite, an important step in understanding the problem. One of their early findings was an unidentified fungus found on several afflicted trees. Whether this is a cause of the die-off, or an effect of whatever is afflicting the trees, remains to be seen. But the research may shed new light. Without efforts like this, the screwbean mesquite could disappear, having negative consequences for desert birds and river habitats.

“I wish this story had a happy ending,” says Warren. “But we actually don’t even know what the problem is. Hopefully there is someone out there who can help us make this a happy story. There is an opportunity for a researcher to make a difference. Until then, I’m going to be out there telling everyone I can about these disappearing trees.”

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  1. Richard Pine says:

    Add birds to the tags

  2. Elena Esparza says:

    The mystery of the screwbeen mesquite is definitely troubling. I live about 18 miles south of Shoshone, where Leonard Warren reports his observations. I too have seen the same. We still have a few stands of trees that remain, but not thriving. And, in an attempt to reforest declining areas, I’ve tried to sprout some seeds and root some clippings with no success. Our trees were not a part of the Tamerisk irradiation project, However, up and down stream in the BLM areas, around this property, there was significant herbicide use. I wonder if that created a weakness in the tree’s immunity system and left them susceptible to that fungus? I assumed that Fungus in general don’t thrive in this harsh climate. Taking more samples in as many areas of both the “ healthy” trees and the dead trees would be so important.

    As I understand about Mesquite in general, that they create miles of deep underground network of root systems. Some studies have found them to have roots reaching up to 150 feet deep. The Armagosa river goes underground for much of its course. Could the herbicide also follow the flow along that underground course, making this species weakened? I’m asking more questions now. Also interesting to me is the information about the decline in the southern Colorado Valley. Wasn’t there a great Tmerisk removal project in the upper Colorado river where it courses Northern Arizona and along the area just south of Hoover Dam. Was an herbicide used? And if so, could it have affected the trees, in the Southern Colorado Valley? Very intriguing indeed!

  3. Al Washburn says:

    This is easy. Spray a screwbean very lightly with the same herbicide used to kill tamarisk, without cutting the screwbean down first as is done with tamarisk, and see if the screwbean dies. If it doesn’t, as I suspect it won’t, then we can look elsewhere for the cause.

  4. Cynthia Willette says:

    I think if you do more research on tree die-offs, you will find many species that are being affected. Here in the Northeast, I am observing many young trees and bushes dying. Much more tree funguses are attacking the trees, along with hordes of damaging pests! Our ecosystem is being systematically destroyed by chemtrail spraying which has been going on for many decades- at least back to the Vietnam War when they used it there. Chemtrails affect the plants ability to use photosynthesis by blocking the sun! The chemicals used such as aluminum and barium are also trapping the earth’s heat, which in turn is causing global warming. The ex- CIA director, John Brennan, has several YouTube videos where he admits to chemtrail spraying and has the gall to say that it helps global warming! Global warming did not start until chemtrail spraying! Follow the money, my Dad always said! Who’s making money from carbon taxes, etc.?

  5. Annabelle Herbert says:

    It would be helpful to know what, if anything, you have ruled out as a possible cause for the die-off. For instance, is the water table too low at times, if the answer is no, then strike that off the list.

    I’d like to know if the initiation of the die-off starts at any particular time of year?

    I can see that the problem might be due to a combination of causes. What a conundrum!


  6. David Billings says:

    The mesquite at and near Yaqui Well in Anza Borrego State Park have been dying off for some years now. This is annecdotal, but I can recall when there was actually observable water in the well. Today, the water is no longer visible. It is my layman’s speculation that the drawdown in the water table in this part of the Coachella Valley, including perhaps as far away as Borrego Springs, is the cause.

  7. Graeme Ure says:

    Sounds like a keystone species, so I hope a solution is found or the dieback passes.
    I’m sure it’s been considered but sounds disturbingly like a Phytophthora. Think Eucalyptus forest dieback across Australia including in arid areas and Kauri dieback in NZ. Riverine environments, particularly where there is considerable underground flows, favour Phytophthora where zoospores move through the groundwater. P. cinnamomi is the main culprit in Australian Eucalyptus and for a time was a major problem in kiwifruit orchards affecting kiwifruit and the Populus spp planted for shelter. A quick search shows it affects over 1000 spp. and my impression is that it is quick to adapt to new hosts. Spores also get around on vehicles, boots and muddy animals especially pigs.
    A quick intro. here

  8. Linden Piest says:

    As a biologist for Arizona Game and Fish working along the Lower Colorado River, I’ve been noticing the screwbean mortality for a number of years. I think we can rule out 2 of the 3 possible explanations noted in the article. 1) We have plenty of areas with dying mesquite where there is no saltcedar control. 2) We have plenty of areas with dying mesquite where there is flood irrigation or abundant soil moisture from natural or artificial wetlands, including where young screwbeans are thriving right next to dying mature screwbeans. I think this leaves 3), a pathogen of some sort that attacks trees as they mature. Trunks of most trees I’ve examined show signs of bark borer beetles. I sent samples to a plant pathologist but never heard back.

  9. Michael Marchiano says:

    Great article…. hope someone gets a handle on this quickly. Deserts are particularly fragile and mesquite are a key ingredient for so many insects, birds and mammals and the food chain that depends on all of them. Don’t know if it is related but my son-in-law was telling me that he was removing several dead mesquite trees from his property in Tucson, Arizona. Just thought they died from some normal cause.

  10. Marc Severson says:

    All the more reason why we should work to moderate our effects on the earth. Nature sees extinctions happening periodically as sequential occurrences as it is, man does not need to expedite the process any and, more to the point, he must mitigate the effects caused by his presence on the only planet we have.
    Thank you for an excellent update on this issue.

  11. James Moore says:

    Great coverage Matt and many thanks for Len raising this issue and refusing to accept the sometimes flippant responses of those who think they know the causes. Well done!

  12. Christine Meleg says:

    As a quick and unsubstantiated guess there isn’t one single cause of the trees’ decline but a combination of global warning, use of herbicide,drought and a change in natural water courses. It is my guess that the screw bean mesquite has an inability to adapt to challenges in its ability to grow normally. This hasn’t been seen prior to our times because humans haven’t lived near the trees until the last one hundred in any great numbers. Damages to these trees may have occured very slowly prior to human observation and now that is accumulating to a staggering degree. One or two trees dying went unnoticed but the transmission of a environmental cause had already been transmitted via seeds. The next generation had the same problem and as the increasing number of environmental attacks occured the greater number of trees were unable to survive. Remember this is a guess! But does it make sense? It could be. PS I am a cancer survivor and have been told this same scenario by the three oncologistsI I have seen. that often a complex disease process is caused by more than one factor,but there is a genetic underlying predominance to develope the disease in the first place. To put it shortly, the genetic basis has to be there first, then the consequences of the environmental damage is seen later. And as a second addition I am a Biology, Human Physiology ,Anatomy teacher.

  13. Shawn Goodchild says:

    Another variable in the big picture could be that a vast majority of mesquite used in restoration projects at Ash Meadows, both screwbean and honey, were from Lower Colorado River stock, either grown out to 1-gallon pots down below Laughlin somewhere or in Vegas. Not sure if the genetics, non-native potting soil, and acclimation of the non-local plants may play a role in the long run, hopefully it will be a positive role.

    Also, the mesquites in that area have huge cultural significance. The Shoshone and probably Paiute used to maintain ‘orchards’ of mesquite for food, fiber, and building material. My memory on this is sketchy, but perhaps their lore can be brought in to the mix for a solution.

  14. Lael Bradshaw says:

    Could it be more than one thing causing the die off? Does change in temperature at night change the composition of the soil?

    1. Scott Christy says:

      One of the major issues in ecology is this type of intricacy. There are simply so many variables that the relationships between them are very difficult to define and study. Lots of blind alleys and unexpected results.

  15. Chris Sega says:

    Thanks for highlighting this Len. Screwbeans are such an important part of the Mojave and I’m glad you are trying to bring attention to this problem.