NatureTech

Can Maps Help Chart the Future for People and Salmon?

July 10, 2017

Craigie Creek detail. @ James DePasquale / The Nature Conservancy in Alaska

A Map Gives More than a Sense of Where You Are

I hope everybody reading this has a favorite place.

I do, and as I write this, I’m there now. Chances are you’ve never heard of it, few have. It’s in Alaska, up where Craigie Creek gets its start at an unnamed turquoise lake.

This is a small stream born out of the glaciers in the Talkeetna Mountains. It flows into the mighty Susitna River – renowned for how it pulses with salmon each summer – then rages unfettered down to the valley floor and into the sea at Cook Inlet.

Craigie Creek is not a popular spot. For me to get there, it takes an hour’s drive out of town into the southern toe of the Talkeetnas, then I turn onto what may have once been a mining road, but is now a boulder-strewn creek bed so bumpy that the dogs implore us to be let out so they can walk beside the truck. When four-wheel drive is no longer an option, we start walking with backpacks. We hike an hour or two into the rocky crags and ice fields, passing an ancient prospector’s cabin before finally reaching the turquoise lake. For well over a decade, my wife and I have come to this place to mark Alaska’s high summer.

The scene in this U-shaped valley glows emerald. Lupine, fireweed, Alaska violets and chocolate lilies paint swaths of color. Brushy willows line the creek banks. Walls of granite rise from the valley floor. Up high, hanging valleys filled with ice and hidden lakes spill whitewater into steep canyons. As the season progresses, the tundra turns crimson and acres of summer wildflowers give way to fall blueberries, low bush cranberries and crowberries.  Down the middle of it all runs Craigie Creek: clear, fast and colder than a January gravestone. Rushing, gurgling, falling over rocks and down waterfalls, the stream provides a perfect continuous background audio loop in an otherwise silent setting. I love Craigie Creek, and it’s stupendous in every way, but most of the Mat-Su is full of places like this.

Camping at Craigie Craigie Creek. Photo @ James DePasquale / The Nature Conservancy in Alaska

Like the Back of My Hand

I mapped this place. It’s my job. I’m a geographer for The Nature Conservancy in Alaska. On this project, the idea was to make the end-all, be-all map all of the lakes, rivers and streams – the hydrography – in this West Virginia-sized chunk of Alaska. People in Alaska refer to this vast basin as the Mat-Su. It’s a shorthand mashup of Matanuska and Susitna – the two mighty rivers that shape this place.

When our team embarked on this project, we expected to learn a lot. After all, this place has 40 glaciers, over 24,000 lakes and water everywhere. What we didn’t expect, however, was the discovery of 27,000 miles of previously unmapped streams. For context, that’s more than enough distance to travel around the equator. That’s a lot of water and, to our delight, more than we’d thought possible.

Map of the Mat-Su Basin @ James DePasquale / The Nature Conservancy in Alaska

If Alaska is a land of salmon, the Mat-Su is like a fertile crescent. And it turns out that people love its lakes, rivers and forests just as much as the salmon do.

So it is no surprise that the Mat-Su is also home to Alaska’s fastest growing population.  I like to think of this as an opportunity: I believe the Mat-Su can become the first place in history where people and salmon thrive together. However, for this to become true, science begs us to understand that we must act swiftly and with urgency to generate the biggest impacts as quickly as possible. I asked myself, “how can I use science to help others understand that by taking care of salmon and the wondrous places they live in, we’re taking care of ourselves as well?” With 27,000 miles of newly discovered salmon streams the answer was simple: we needed a new map.

Map Detail @ James DePasquale / The Nature Conservancy in Alaska

How to Tell a Story with a Map

I think of maps as stories about places. I wanted to tell a story of how remarkable this place truly is. Rather than convey technical concepts, I wanted people viewing my map to experience a sense of awe as if they were here themselves. So I got started, and one iteration of the map led to another. Dave Albert, an excellent cartographer in Juneau who directs the science program for The Nature Conservancy in Alaska, gave me many tips and ideas. I read books and articles on cartography. I presented various versions of the map at workshops and even made a version for viewing with 3-D glasses. (Fun for a map geek like me, but not that practical, I learned.) Then, I decided to enter my map in the Esri International User Conference in San Diego, arguably the largest gathering of mapmakers in the world.

By this point I had come to realize that the Mat-Su basin, this special place, speaks for itself. My map did not require complex symbology or fancy fonts. All it needed to be was a window to this place. Just show the entire Mat-Su, I thought, and the place will tell the story. I made the map look as natural as possible and avoided cluttering it with text and labels. I included huge and wild salmon rivers as well as tiny, off-channel streams one could step across – those safe places where young salmon grow big enough to swim off to the sea. I added just enough anthropogenic detail to give the audience perspective and scale, such as the cities of Palmer and Wasilla, but favored the natural terrain over all else.

Map Detail @ James DePasquale / The Nature Conservancy in Alaska

Although I have done it many times, it is painful for me to attend the annual Esri conference the second week in July, as the sockeye are typically running and my Alaskan friends are filling their freezers with fresh fish. Nonetheless, when July came I printed the final version of my map and boarded a plane.

Once I got there, I tacked the 36 by 36-inch map up on the wall in the exhibit hall and was soon surprised to see how the map could draw a crowd.

People stood inches away, squinting at details. Others stepped back to take in the vast watershed. In the end, the map took top honors. It’s now on the cover of annual Esri Map Book, due out today. (You can also see it reviewed on the Maps We Love blog.)

The Way Forward

I still wonder how a single map could win such acclaim. And to be honest, sometimes I feel as if I had an unfair advantage. My subject area is so beautiful and diverse that all I had to do was to let it be.  It’s the uniquely Alaskan landscape that won these recognitions. The rivers, the glaciers, the floodplains, the mountains, the forests, the ocean and the estuaries on the map draw people in like a campfire in the dark. With the release of this year’s Esri map book, I am extremely excited for more people to learn about what a great place the Mat-Su basin is.

You know the funny thing about this map? We say it’s for the wild salmon, but of course salmon don’t need a map. Migrating salmon know where they’re going. The map is for us. That is, for everyone who believes people and wild salmon can share the same place. It always has been an elusive goal but I know we can do it. And we’ll need a good map to get there.

James DePasquale of Palmer is a GIS analyst for The Nature Conservancy in Alaska.

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8 comments

  1. Brilliant work James! Indeed, you do have an amazing geography to work with. But you have brought it to life in a most special way. It worked. I could imagine stepping across the tiny little creeks.
    Cheers

  2. James, I really enjoyed this article, and your discussion of how maps can help people and nature jointly thrive. Way to make it real. Beautiful map, by the way! Thanks. -Duncan

  3. Thank you Jim! I loved the narative and the map! Now, How can I get one?? 🙂

  4. Excuse me, but my people the Haida lived in harmony with salmon for thousands and tens of thousands of years. Let us include all the Native Nations of the west coast, Tlingit, Salish, Makah and many others.

    1. Thank you for the correction! We have updated the title to more accurately reflect human history with salmon and our hopes for the future.

  5. You are doing amazing work. You are the kind of person most salmon can co-exist with. Most people are not in my observation.
    As long as people still feel it is ethical to “play” with these amazing creatures by “catch, torture, and release” sport fishing then salmon will be jeapordized by increasing human populations.

  6. Oh! Oh! What a concept! That current maps (nice pun) are not complete in mapping of waterways! Awesome!!! Wonderful thinking. Wonderful work!!! Where can I buy a paper map? Many thanks!