Five Great Animals with Even Better Scientific Names

July 20, 2016

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Closeup of red panda. Photo by Mathias Appel on Flickr in the Public Domain

As a life-long admirer of nature and words with love in equal measure for each, there is nothing that so perfectly blends my passions as the meaning of scientific names.

The “father of modern taxonomy,” Carl Linnaeus (a.k.a Carolus – giving yourself a Latinized name was all the rage among academics of the time), wasn’t the first to attempt to standardize the names of plants & animals, but he did simplify the process with binomial nomenclature.

His process continues to be used today, though it has been refined and organizations have arisen to govern the creation of scientific names.

Scientific names may sound strange since they’re often in Latin or Greek, but if you check out the etymology of the terms, scientific names are often even more descriptive than the common names that we give flora and fauna. And that makes sense: one goal of scientific nomenclature is to describe the specific, unique creature concisely.

That hasn’t stifled the creativity of scientists – there are some hilarious, creative, and punny scientific names out there. But scientific names don’t have to be crazy to be fun. Here are some of my favorite creatures whose names highlight the descriptive power of scientific names.

Share your favorite scientific names in the comments!

  1. Black-footed Ferret

    Mustela nigripes

    Black-footed ferret being reintroduced to historic prairie habitat in eastern Colorado at the Walker Ranch. Photo © Chris Pague/TNC

    Most scientific names are descriptive and this one fits the black-footed ferret, translating almost exactly to the common name black-footed ferret.

    Mustela is Latin for weasel (hence also the family name of weasel-like mammals is Mustelidae). The species name, nigripes, comes from Latin niger for black and pes for foot. There is a proud tradition (hailing back at least to Ancient Greek) of naming things by their feet that gives us many scientific and common names from octopus (eight-footed) to platypus (flat or wide-footed).

    Black-footed ferrets are the most endangered mammal in the US, so scarce that they were once thought to be extinct. There is hope they will make a comeback with a successful reintroduction program underway.

  2. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake

    Crotalus atrox

    Western diamondback rattlesnake in Arizona. Photo © Paul Berquist

    Scientific names don’t have to be skin deep. This scientific name is as much about the sound of and human responses to the western diamondback rattlesnake as its appearance.

    The genus Crotalus derives from Greek κρόταλον, a rattle or other noisemaker, and the species atrox is Latin for fierce or frightening (though little threat to careful humans, rattlesnakes of all sorts have been looked upon with fear since they got their names).

    You may have noticed, not all scientific names stick to just one language – many mix Greek & Latin and some more recent names draw on the language of the region where the creature is found.

  3. Bald Eagle

    Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    Bald Eagle sitting on tree. Photo © Scott Copeland

    I’ve been fond of the scientific name for the bald eagle ever since I was teaching Greek. Not only does it employ four key Greek words, I think it does a better job than “bald eagle” of describing the bird.

    The genus is a rough transliteration from Greek ἁλιαίετος meaning sea-eagle, which further breaks down into ἅλς (hals) for salt – often metaphorically used of the sea – and ἀετός for eagle. The species is a compound of λευκός, bright or white, and κεφαλή, head. Put it together and you have white-headed sea-eagle, more accurate than “bald.”

    People have been impressed by the iconic majesty of eagles for a long time. In ancient Greece, eagles were the bird of Zeus and of course the bald eagle is the national bird of the US.

  4. Monarch Butterfly

    Danaus plexippus

    Portrait of a monarch butterfly gathering nectar from flowering goldenrod, Massachusetts. Photo © Cheryl Rose

    Scientific names that are more creative, or an homage to a celebrity, didn’t start with the Beyoncé horse fly. They go back to Linnaeus himself and the Danaus genus of butterflies.

    When I first saw Danaus as the genus name, I wondered what connection these butterflies had to the mythical king Δαναός (Danaus), best known from Aeschylus’ Suppliant Women. In the full myth of Danaus,  50 daughters are forced to marry their 50 cousins, but at the command of Danaus murder the men in their sleep. All except for one, Hypermestra, who spares her husband Lynceus.

    Though it was equally mysterious in reference to the monarch butterfly, I didn’t immediately realize that πλήξιππος (plexippus), Greek for horse-driver, was also a name. Plexippus, was one of the 50 sons of Aegyptus who was killed on that fatal night.

    Thanks to a reference in Wikipedia, I was able to track down the page where Linnaeus notes that he has borrowed all of the names of the Danai candidi (Danaus butterflies with whitish wings) from the daughters of Danaus and the Danai festivi (Danaus butterflies with more colorful, varied wings) from the sons of Aegyptus.

    Unfortunately for us, Linnaeus didn’t explain why he chose these names – my best guess is that the numbers worked out well and the butterflies looked royal, as in our common name “monarch.” While the reason behind the name remains a mystery, science has made great strides in understanding the causes of the recent decline in monarch populations and there are some simple ways that you can help them bounce back.

  5. Red Panda

    Ailurus fulgens

    Red panda at the Cincinnati Zoo. Photo © Greg Hume / Wikimedia through a Creative Commons license

    This is my personal favorite, not only because red pandas are, yes, incredibly cute. It is also a great name in its own right.

    The genus Ailurus comes from Greek αἴλουρος for domestic cat. Red pandas are roughly the size of a cat and I can see the similarity that led to this name, though the genetic relationship between cats and pandas is distant. The resemblance to a cat is close enough that it’s picked up in another of the red panda’s common names – the red bear-cat.

    Switching to Latin for the species name, fulgens means flashing or gleaming and not just any flash – in Latin literature fulgens and related words are frequently used to describe fire and lighting. The kind of shining that inspires awe and maybe a little fear, a beautiful description of the red panda’s brilliant fur. This also is reminiscent of a modern nickname for the red panda – the firefox.

Lisa Feldkamp

Lisa loves all things citizen science and enjoys learning about everything that goes on four legs, two wings or fins - she even finds six and eight-legged critters fascinating at a safe distance. She has a PhD in Classical Literature and Languages from the University of Wisconsin - Madison and enjoys reading Greek and Roman literature or talking about mythology in her spare time. More from Lisa

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    1. Thank you Kathleen! That is awesome – and make’s the common name a better description than I thought.

  1. SO many scientific names to enjoy. SO little time.
    Mimus polyglottos – Northern Mocking bird – the poly-glotted (many-tongued) mimic… ;o)

    1. I love that, mocking birds are the original polyglots. Thanks Elizabeth!

  2. Humpback whale — Megaptera novaeangliae: big-winged New Englander, for its enormous front flippers. But it didn’t get the formal designation until 1932 even though it was first described in the 1750s.

    1. Awesome! One of my favorite clades is pinniped which from the Latin could be translated either as wing foot or fin foot – I prefer to think of it as a wing. With Megaptera it looks like they made it much clearer that wing is intended by using the Greek. Thanks Jonathan!

  3. What about Pestifer pestifer? Apt? And the Hidatsa Indians call the chickadee a tsikadeedee (bird dee dee). And at age 79 I find that I can frequently remember the botanical or zoological names while the common names may take a while to turn up.

    1. Same here, I studied botany and general biology it was mandated that we memorize the scientific name of every plant and animal that we studied…qute an undertaking at the time and at 71, I still remember most of them…but I can’t remember what I ate for lunch yesterday…..Common names can be so misleading as they can be given to many different species where scientific names denote only one species……although some species have two or more names until consensus is reached as to which one will prevail. Studying taxonomy is SO exciting !

  4. How about Dyseriocrania griseocapitella? Here’s a 14 syllable name for a moth that measures in at about 6 mm long. The common name is Chinquapin Leaf-miner Moth, but the species name – griseocapitella – means gray little head and it does have one a gray scaley one. Can’t do much with the species name except “two series skull”. ??

    1. Hi Deborah, Very cool- love the gray little head part! I think the Dys at the beginning of the genus name is from the Greek prefix δυσ- (dus-) for bad, hard or unlucky. Then the erio part would be from ἔριον (erion, often shortened to erio- in compound words) for wool. And you are correct that crania would be from Greek κρανίον (kranion) for the skull, or upper part of the head. So I think we’d end up with something like bad woolly skull little gray head. There’s also a genus called Eriocrania – woolly skull. This is a guess, but perhaps the namer the Dyseriocrania found them similar to the Eriocrania but not as good or unlucky in some way – perhaps their heads are not typically as woolly?

  5. Yes, the black rat/ship rat has a great binomial – Rattus rattus !

  6. My favorite scientific name is ‘Fasciola hepatica’ which rolls off the tongue so nicely….It belongs to the disgusting parasite known as the ‘Sheep Liver Fluke’…… Sharon Hyatt

    1. Upupa epops is an awesome choice and the segments of the scientific name sound similar (to one another and to the common name) because, like English hoopoe, the Latin (upupa) and Greek (epops) names of the bird are onomotapoetic renderings of the bird’s call.

  7. how do red pandas reproduce. i need to know for my biology class

    1. Hi Luke, One of the most important things you can learn is where to find reliable information. I suggest that you talk to your librarian about where you can find a book about red pandas or which sources of biology information on the internet are trustworthy. For instance, when looking for reliable information about wildlife, you might try the Encyclopedia of Life. Depending on your assignment your teacher might prefer that you get your information from a book rather than the internet.

  8. Great article. I, too, love both nature and language and have been fascinated with learning taxonomic names since I was a kid memorizing the names of tropical fish when I kept an aquarium. One of my favorite scientific names is Odocoileus Hemionus, the “mule” deer, which translates roughly to “Hollow Toothed Half Ass” referencing Odo as tooth and “hemi” as half a beast of burden “onus.” That’s just cool, and clearly takes into account the similarities between the ears of a mule or ass and the deer being named. I like the marmot as well, “Marmota Flaviventris,” roughly translating as “Yellow bellied mountain mouse.” That’s downright poetic and rolls of the tongue trippingly! Same with “Turdus Migratorius,” the “wandering thrush,” aka the robin. Maybe you should write an entry on the most poetic, musical and “fluid” sounding translations of scientific names. Great stuff!

  9. Oh…also…I can’t find a definite literal translation of “psyllabora” in “psyllabora vigintiduopunctata, the twenty-two spotted ladybird beetle. Clearly “viginitduopunctata” means “twenty-two spots,” but what is “psyllabora?” I’m tempted to say it means something about tree dwelling (“arbor?” tree?) , but I don’t want to speculate. Finally, what reliable books or other resources exist on translating or learning about the history of the scientific names given to animals? Would love an article on that as well. Thanks!

  10. Nothing beats the Western lowland gorilla:

    gorilla gorilla gorilla

    I rest my case.

  11. Scientific names can be so beautiful, in spite of the fact that they’re all manmade. They often have an indescribable elegance. I have a lot of favorites, but I’m partial to Felis catus (it’s just funny, plus I love cats), Tyto alba, and Corvus corax. Gorilla gorilla is cool too, but perhaps not exactly elegant.

  12. I have a long background of working with plants and animals and their scientific names. Is there a book available that has the meaning of the words used in the scientific taxonomy. An example of what I am looking for is as follows.

    Example: Quercus macrocarpa = Burr Oak,
    Quercus, Latin meaning Oak and macro = latin meaning large and carpa = seed
    Oak with large seed, in this case produces one the larger acorn seeds.

    I would love to find a book that would help me recognize what latin or greek scientific names stand for to allow me to better understand identifying characteristics of the plant or animal…

    Another example: leucupos, leukon greek for white, pos for foot = white footed or in this case white footed deer mouse

    Are there any books out there like that?

  13. Don’t want to come across as rude but I find these examples very hard to remember as they have no connection to their common name.

  14. Swordfish: xiphais gladius.
    Xiphos is a Greek word meaning sword.
    Gladius is a Latin word meaning sword.

    The fish has a sword.