Citizen Science

Dragonfly Migration: A Mystery Citizen Scientists Can Help Solve

September 16, 2013

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Variegated meadowhawk. Photo: Flickr user Five Acre Geographic under a Creative Commons license.

Migration season is upon us, but it isn’t just birds that are migrating.  We know that monarch butterflies make a complex annual migration, but the record for the longest insect migration (twice the distance of monarchs) is held by a dragonfly — the wandering glider.

Unfortunately, beyond this remarkable example, we know very little about dragonfly migration.

In North America, although we know that certain dragonflies are migratory, almost nothing is known about where they are coming from and where they are going. It’s surprising (and exciting!) that in these modern times we still have such a big natural history nut to crack.

Fortunately efforts are now underway to take on this challenge.

The migration of the wandering glider was only recently described by a biologist named Charles Anderson who lives and works in the Maldives.  While dragonfly migration has been suspected for at least 100 years, Charles Anderson was the first person to tell the full migration story of any species in his 2009 article in Tropical Biology.

Although a marine biologist by trade, Anderson calls himself “an old fashioned naturalist” and it was the simple observation of thousands of dragonflies descending on the Maldives each October that got him wondering about their origin and destination.  He knew that the Maldives were not their ultimate destination because there is no dragonfly breeding habitat (rain-fed temporary ponds) on the island.

He began to bring together observations from India and east Africa and studied the timing of sightings in relation to seasonal weather patterns.  This approach led to the breakthrough that the Maldives dragonflies were just passing through, on the way to east Africa from India.

They were following the monsoon rains from one continent to another.  As the rains moved to Africa, the dragonflies followed and when the rains moved back to India, the dragonflies returned there.  Like monarch butterflies, the full migration circuit takes multiple generations of dragonflies to complete.

This same species, the wandering glider, is widespread in North America but much less is known about its migration on this continent.  We do know that they migrate northward from the tropics and subtropics in spring, breeding along the way, with some finding their way as far north as the U.S.-Canada border in summer before returning south again in the fall.

It’s not just the wandering glider that is migrating.  There’s also the green darner, the spot-winged glider, black saddlebags, and variegated meadowhawk.  There are eleven additional species suspected to migrate.  The state of knowledge is scant enough that we can be sure that more species will be added to this list over time.

Migrating insects might be the foundation of an airborne ecosystem that wings its way north and south with the seasons.  Beyond sketching out their migration biology, the next step is to understand the ecological role of migrating dragonflies.  From studies of the green darner and wandering glider, we know that dragonflies are using the same migration strategies and timing as migratory birds, moving when the winds are favorable in the fall and spring.

Because migratory birds and migratory insects are traveling at the same times and concentrating at the same places, it’s likely that certain birds are exploiting this abundance of dragonflies to fuel their own migration.  For example, kestrels and merlins have been observed feasting on migrating dragonfly swarms. 

Green darner. Photo: Flickr user Kenneth Cole Schneider under a Creative Commons license.
Green darner. Photo: Flickr user Kenneth Cole Schneider under a Creative Commons license.

 A Science Mystery You Can Help Solve

Solving the mysteries of dragonfly migration can be done only with the help of many “old fashioned naturalists” keeping an eye out for swarms of traveling dragonflies. The best way to help is by participating in a collaborative effort led by the Xerces Society known as the Migratory Dragonfly Partnership. This group is asking for the help of citizen scientists across the continent to contribute their observations of dragonflies on the move and their emergence from ponds in order to piece together the puzzle of dragonfly migration.

Beyond the migratory species, there are a total of 316 dragonfly species in North America (and 141 species of damselflies, their close realtives).  Fortunately, there are now many field guides that can help identify dragonflies.  A good place to start is Odonata Central, which has news on the latest field guides and species checklists by county.  Dragonfly watching is a great complement to birding because just as bird activity settles down in the late morning, dragonflies and other insects become more active as the day warms up.

To hear Charles Anderson’s first-hand account of his migration discovery, check out his TED talk.

Wandering glider. Photo: Flickr user Texas Eagle under a Creative Commons license.
Wandering glider. Photo: Flickr user Texas Eagle under a Creative Commons license.
Joe Smith

Joe Smith, PhD, explores the lives of the birds around us by sharing insights from scientific research. As an ecologist for a New Jersey-based conservation services company, he helps to restore coastal ecosystems and the migratory birds that depend on them. Joe lives in the birding hotspot of Cape May, NJ and has done field research with birds throughout the U.S. and Latin America. He writes about nature in his backyard at www.smithjam.com. More from Joe

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76 comments

  1. I have not witnessed over 5 dragonflies here in Kelowna BC, where before there use to be many!

  2. I was just thinking about this very topic because I came across swarms of dragonflies twice last month. Both events were amazing, hundreds for sure. Don’t know what kind though.
    I videotaped one account, I’ll have to go back and look. Left me wondering where they went, they were completely gone the next day. Haven’t seen a single one that I can recall in about a month, here in FL east coast. I’ll keep an eye out!

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  4. Huge swarm of large brown dragonflies hit Cancun, Mexico today on heels of big rainstorm.

  5. I live in Duluth mn. and each summer I see thousands of dragonflies migrating through my yard.I will post next time this happens and will take note of the type they are.I have lived in this house about 12 years and have seen this every year.

  6. Finally noticed dragonflies migrating through duluth, heading in west to northwest direction.These are smaller about 2 to 2.5 inches long with a darker color almost black in color on the last 3/4 inch of the tail.Have seen many larger dragonflies earlier this season but not in migration.Seems in general the dragonfly population here is quite plentiful this year compared to the past few years. S.peterson Duluth MN. p.s will try to figure out the species soon.

  7. There are hundreds of dragon flies flying around our condo in Carolina Beach,NC.I think they are green but some seem to be brown.I have seen this in past years as well,but there seems to be more this yr

  8. On August 31, 2014 we saw dozens of dragonflies darting about in our yard. They appeared to be catching small insects. We do not live near water. We’ve lived at this home in South Bend Indiana for over 30 years and never have seen anything like this. Spectacular!

  9. On September 7, 2014 I saw hundreds of dragonflies fly over my house in Mastic, New York.They were flying from the north to the south and were headed towards beach from around 4 pm to 5 pm. I have lived in this house for over 40 years and this is the first time.

  10. On Sept. 5 we had HUNDREDS of dragonflies in our yard flying around…never saw anything like it before. They were present for a bout an hour and then they were gone. It was magically noteworthy! We live in the country outside of Richland Center, WI.

  11. Second year that common green darner dragonflies have spent about a week swarming up and down my street. Hundreds in early evening spend 1–2 hours flying in circles from about 5 feet to 30–40 feet. They seem to prefer open space rather than wooded areas. This is atypical for this region but I think it may be a new pattern that has developed for some unknown reason. I expect them again next year and will be on the watch the third week of September.

  12. On September 19th, 2014 @ 7:30 pm we saw 1000’s of Dragonflies along I-380 southbound from Cedar Rapids IA to our home in Swisher, IA. About an 8 mile stretch. They appeared to be flying over the tree tops & bushes. We even had many in our small town of Swisher. I never witnessed that before & is was very interesting. I had to google to learn what I was seeing. We have the Cedar River & the Iowa River very near us. We also have many creeks & farm pounds around us. It was hard to tell which direction they were actually heading. Hope this helps! 🙂

  13. My children pointed out to me, “All the dragonfly’s that were flying over our house!” They were beautiful! We live in Navarre, FL about 1\2 mile inland and they seemed to be traveling NE. There was a steady stream starting at about 6:20PM and started to fizzle out about 7pm. They were traveling from the SE. Today is Sept.22, 2014.

  14. Live on the west side of Mobile Bay on the water almost on the gulf, thousands of large dragonflies heading north . This is the second day of this, beautiful in the early morning sunlight.

  15. […] most plentiful species of dragonfly, are found on every continent except Antarctica, and have the longest migration of any insect (twice as long as the monarch butterfly.) One reason I enjoy having a native wildlife garden is […]

  16. July 11 2105
    North Topsail Beach on Topsail Island in North Carolina.
    Hundreds and hundreds of dragon flys just flew past my beach house while i was sitting on the back porch. The event provided several minutes of fascination and beauty. All different sizes. Ive never seen dragonflys so big before. It looked like it was raining dragonflys. What an awesome experience.. So thankful to have witnessed it!!

  17. I was at our Marina in Islamorada Florida (mm 85 in the Keys) when I first noticed them heading north flying overhead at about 9 am on July 29th. The steady stream of approximately 3″ long insects was still flying over 10 hours later. I could not hazard a guess as to how many. But, in that times period there were easily 10’s of thousands. It was Biblical if nothing else. I definitely would hope to understand what we witnessed.

  18. We live in Marathon, Florida. For two days know we have observed Dragonflys flying west south west. Not in the numbers observed by Chris McKim in Islamadora. However the numbers were sufficient enough to make you take notice. All moving with intent, and in the same direction

  19. I live in Schertz, Texas. We have had swarming dragonflies for about a month. They never seem to land or get close enough to see what kind they are.

  20. A swarm of dragon flies just passed over our home in Redding, California. We usually have rust colored ones using our pond but this swarm of unknowns passed over.
    12:00 noon PST Aug 30, 2015

  21. My name is Brenda and I live in Streaor Illinois Was very surprised to see dragonflies in flight to who knows where! For I have never seen it before. I couldn’t tell you what kind they were but I can tell you they were very large, larger then I have ever seen here in Illinois. They were almost the size of a hummingbird. They were all flying very high but yet they were very visible to see, even in the distant sky you could see them. I was in total awww to be one that had witnessed them. Of course I talked with others and not everyone in town had seen them. Seems like us on the southwest side seen them so I assume they were heading south west. I have had the opportunity to witness the migrating monarchs in Kansas some years back a moment I will forever remember. For I was riding horseback in the pasture the sun was coming up and there was ground fog and all of a sudden I was surrounded by the monarchs there was so many I could feel them fluttering on my skin and some even landing on me. It was so awesome! I always tell people that it was my closet experience of going to heaven! Early morning sunrise on horseback with millions of monarch butterflies wow was that awesome! Well I never knew the dragonfly migrated so this was fascinating to me. I seen them on August 31 around 6:00 pm and September 1st at around 6:00 pm . they just seem to be flying around and around! Just wanted to share my siting.

  22. I’m watching thousands of dragonfly’s flying all around my house and the hay fields and lot of birds feeding on them.. Amazing… ( (Gretna ne.)

  23. About five o’clock this afternoon, Sept. 10, 2015 there were a dozen or so dragonflies buzzing around our back yard and over the neighbor’s adjoining yard. They hung around for about an hour and were gone. I assume they were migrating.

  24. September 15,2015

    I live in Gowrie, Iowa about 75 miles NW of Des Moines. Today there are dozens if not 2-3 hundred dragonflies in the open part of the yard. On September 9th we had several hundred monarchs on their migration. Very nice, but in the late 70’s and early 80’s we had thousands.

  25. I counted around 400 over the period around 20 minutes. Moving from south to north at around 7:00 in the evening, from my front porch in Seabrook, Texas. They were still coming in small groups, when i left to look up information about them on the computer. I do not know what kind they were, as they only passed overhead and did not fly very low or land. Hope this info helps in your study. If i learn more, i will post.

  26. On Fall Equinox this year I stumbled upon hundreds of Dragonflies gathering in my yard. Not sure how long they were there, as I did not see the beginning of the event, but ten minutes later they were all gone, and they did not return. Unfortunately I am not knowledgable enough to know what species they were, and they are too small to make out on my video recording. I live in the foothills of the Ozarks outside St. Louis, MO.

  27. I looked this up because my son, who lives in Gibsonton, Fl, saw a swarm of dragonfly’s in his yard and was very unusual. I decided to see if they migrate and are just passing through the area. This was yesterday, 3/11/2016

  28. Dragonfly’s headed southwest last three days in central Arkansas. Temps high 90s. Seems more in number than previous years interesting .

  29. I am in North West Florida bordering Alabama and I have never before seen so many Wandering Gliders.
    I mean they are in the thousands. Certain places you drive thru and its almost like a scary movie.

  30. 08.09.16 Migrating right now and for the past 3 weeks. Here in Long Beach MS (live right down the street from the beach). Thousands of them at a time heading north west. Can’t get close enough to see what kind.

  31. 8-5-2016 in NE Illinois. About 6:45pm, I noticed quite a few flying around the yard across the street. I thought it was an evening feed on mosquitoes, like the swallows do. At 7pm…they were everywhere. Still in what looks like usual hunting patterns but they were every direction I looked. At 7:45, they were gone. When I didn’t get the same show on 8-6, My neighbor said they migrate which I was skeptical of, but then there’s the Monarchs. The activity was very similar to the huge groups of Robins I’ve witnessed in the fall. They’re thick around here in spring/early summer but leave after the young fledge. Then one day in the fall, there’s a few and then they’re everywhere. Eating, drinking, calling, fighting, but all that actvity is rolling south/southwest. I remember the first time I saw it and was amazed by it until about 45 min later I realized how quiet and empty it was. Gone! The dragonflies did the same thing.

  32. SW Florida, gulf coast, August 2016.
    Noticed large swarms of unidentified dragonflies in Cape Coral feeding on 8.12.2016.
    Local event to shore of Sanibel Island, 8.14.2016 is non-stop southern migration of unidentified species of dragonfly in unending numbers. Flow is constant and clearly visible that only direction being flown is one that follows shore line in a southern direction.
    Area: 26.425528, -82.096904
    Fascinating to see.

  33. I live in South West Wyoming. One evening in August I observed a large gathering of dragon flies at roof top level. They seemed to be circling around not going on a straight path. Since we’ve been in drought for sometime we have not had a great amount of insects. I didn’t think they were feeding. There were hundreds. Absolutely fascinating never saw anything like it before

  34. Sept 13 th approx 6pm,West Yukon,Ok crossing I-40 north to south ,by the thousands massive migration of dragonflys! Lived here 35+ years and have never seen anything so remarkable!

  35. I live in Brookings Oregon. One Day I looked up to see a dragonfly flying straight from the Pacific Ocean directly across my yard towards the Land. I took a video, as hard as that was of the Whole thing to document it. What a very weird experience. They flew in from the Ocean for hours……In a flock looking like they were on a mission not stopping, like most dragonflies usually do.

  36. Large swarm of large brown dragonflies were seen flying around Fenwick Island, De. 4/16/17

  37. Hi, I am enjoying all the information on this site. I heard there is a place in the states who celebrate the migration of the dragonflies when they go threw there towns in the fall. Would you happen to know where this would take place. They said it was a celebration about 3 days and the were able to watch all of the hundreds fly through. Are there any groups in Salt Lake City Utah that deal with dragonflies. Thanks

    1. Hi JoAnn, Thank you for the question! As far as I can tell there are multiple dragonfly festivals around the states, but this one at Bitter Lake seems to be most prominent: https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Bitter_Lake/visit/events_calendar/festival.html I also found out about the Dragonfly Society of the Americas, I don’t know if they have a chapter in Salt Lake City, but they might be a good group to contact to find out: http://www.odonatacentral.org/index.php/PageAction.get/name/DSAHomePage

  38. I was told that there is a city that celebrates the dragonflies migration for couple of days. Would you happen to know what state that would be thanks.

  39. Are there any theories as to why this fragile, short-lived insect would undertake migration?

  40. I live in East Texas and for the past couple of weeks, I’ve had a swarm of dragonflies in my yard. I’ve never seen so many in one place and for so long a time.

  41. I’ve observed dragonflies flying in chain like strings moving very fast.I noticed a bluring streak pass. Then saw about 15 to 20 dragonflies connected in a chain then dissapear in a flash.was a sight I wish could have filmed that day on the Sacramento river.

  42. I live in Western Minn. I have seen swarms of dragon flys coming through my yard in the fall. Thinking they may be migrating . I live in a rural area and otherwise don’t see a lot of dragonfly’s. This afternoon I noticed an explosion of smaller dragon flys coming through my yard all heading in a northerly direction. For some reason this is the first time seeing the spring migrantion

  43. Each summer there will be 3 or 4 days where there are swarms of dragonflies passing through Fairhope Alabama. You can see them all day long flying north. It is short lived, only 3 or 4 days but it happens every summer.

  44. Last night I was in the pool and was excited to lay back and watch 100’s of dragonflies swooping all around and disappearing into the trees then back out where I could see them. I have never seen anything quite like this..I live in Waco, Texas. No one else on facebook made any comment about them. Was really interesting and fun to watch.

  45. I live in the Villa section of New Jersey very close to Delaware Bay. Every summer dragonflies stream past my house in large numbers. The date, I believe, this year was July 8 and 9. I think they are saddlebags migrating but not certain of the species. Some hit my front window. Thank you for the article.

  46. Experienced a migration of what seemed like thousands of dragonflies this morning (about 7:30) here in eastern New Mexico. They were traveling north to south. It has been very dry here but there is a (water treatment) pond about 1.5 miles south of where the swarm was seen. Pretty neat. I’ve also seen huge numbers in central New Mexico during very dry periods. Often wondered where they came from and where they are going.

  47. There were clusters of half a dozen to a dozen Dragonflies off Block Island, RI and Montauk, NY yesterday. They were up to 20 miles offshore and seemed to be following the boat. Sorry, I couldn’t identify them, I’ve learned not to bring my glasses on the boat after loosing a few pair overboard.

  48. It is August in central Georgia, Warner Robins. The peaches, watermelon, cantelope, and other fruits have ripened. Some vegetables are still ripening and blooming. I have seen dragonflies. I see at least one per day. In my home we have 4 wasps nests, bumble bees nearby, hawks, large birds and geckos, turtles and many swamp water ponds. The rain is often usually 3-X per week or more. The humidity is offensive creating sweating while walking around the block at any time of day or evening. The night darkness may be the exception to sweating. Regardless, the gnats are fierce. There is no escape of gnats nor ants. But the dragonflies I’ve seen have colorless wings, few are with color. Mostly their duties or designs for being around seem to be to float near my red brick home. They don’t even have a cool flight pattern. It seems they just go forward. Not hovering nor going backward are a part of the flying scheme. I have yet to see any animal eat a dragonfly.

  49. Sitting on beach in Ocean City today and have seen a constant stream of dragonflies heading south along the coast. Went to this blog site to see if they were part of a migration and found out that they are probably heading south. The wind is coming from the North so they seem to be taking advantage of the favorable wind current for their migration. I have been on the same beach after Labor Day and have had the same pleasure watching the monarchs flitting by on their way to Mexico. Isn’t nature amazing. A free nature show easily viewed from my chair on the beach!

  50. We are noticing large numbers of gliders in Destin Florida coming from the gulf in the evening 08/23/2018 Connie Anderson Deems

  51. 5:00pm, August 26, 2018, hundreds + of dragonflies flying in our back yard, about 7 acres in Northfield, IL around Old Willow Rd. and Summerset.

  52. I live on Cape Sable Island and walk Daniel,s head beach often this morning i saw dragon flies coming in off the atlantic ocean i don,t recall of seeing this before got me to thinking and had to look it up i guess never to old to learn something new

  53. We live in Chicago Illinois and we’re just sitting on our balcony and thousands of dragonflies we’re going over top of our heads toward a Southwest position. And all of my 54 years of life my husband to we have never seen such a thing it had to be about 6 to 10 minutes long I tried to film it but the clouds behind them would not and all of my 54 years of life my husband to we have never seen such a thing it had to be about 6 to 10 minutes long I tried to film it but the clouds behind them would not let it be visible! I will never forget it as long as I live I guess it will stay in my mind!

  54. We live in Chicago Illinois and we’re just sitting on our balcony and thousands of dragonflies we’re going over top of our heads toward a Southwest position. And all of my 54 years of life my husband to we have never seen such a thing it had to be about 6 to 10 minutes it was amazing

  55. We’ve had swarms of dragonflies in Hammond, IN through Portage, IN on 8/28/18. I thought this was strange. They were flying westward and patches. We are located on the southern tip of Lake Michigan.

  56. Yesterday, August 29, 2018 there were hundreds of dragonflies in our front yard. They remained in our yard for about an hour then dispersed just as fast as they had arrived. I was in awe and watched them for about an hour flying about. My location is Independence, MO. I hope next year they will return when they migrate.

  57. joe hi my name is jim i live in stoington ct on aug 30 th at 630 pm i saw a 100 yard wide never ending band of dragon flies that lasted to dark 2 hours later.

  58. We live in Iowa, near the Omaha, Nebraska.. There are been a lot of Dragon flies in this area lately, never seen so many before.

  59. Writing on the evening of 3rd of September from my 27th floor south facing apartment in Toronto (with view over Lake Ontario about 1 1/2 to 2 km. distant), watched from my balcony a continual progression of individual dragon flies as well as Monarch butterflies passing from east to west. This goes on every year over a period of a couple of weeks. My speculation is that they proceed southwest along the north shores of Lake Ontario and then Lake Ontario to Point Pelee where they cross Lake Erie southward. This is migration route of many bird species. But their destination pure speculation on my part.

  60. Sioux City, Iowa, U.S.A. My 13 acres was alive th I s evening with thousands of dragonflies. I have never witnessed this before, and this ok…is why I looked for information about them migrating. This has to explain the mass population over my property this evening. It was magical!

  61. I live in central iowa and saw thousands of migrating dragonflies this evening on my walk with the dogs that was 9-17-18 is this normal i’ve lived in central all my life and never seen this before

  62. I was out watching the dragonfly migration here in Harbor Oregon. I have never see anything like this. Sometimes there’s a swarm of them and then a few here and there. They look yellow gold but hard to tell. I had a teal colored one in my backyard yesterday, for the first time.

  63. October 4, 2018 saw a large group of dragonflies and butterflies in Yukon, OK

  64. Today 10-6-2018 I saw for the first time in the twenty years I have lived in Tulsa Oklahoma A very large swarm of dragon flies…I was amazed and confused..This site answered a lot of our questions..

  65. I saw hundreds of the Green Darner in Olathe Kansas in a park where there were lots of trees and lots of water ponds. This was on the 5th of October at about 1:30 or 2 in the afternoon. They were swarming and flying so fast that I couldn’t get a picture but it looked exactly like the Green Darner and there were so many I was amazed.

  66. How do the scientists track the dragonflies when its mighrating to know that it traced some perticular path?

  67. The dragonflies migrate through my town by the thousands at three sisters park chillicothe illinois on the illinois river, I know when they are here because of all the birds diving around to eat them.