Many wildlife species, like snowshoe hares, are well adapted to survive cold temperatures. Photo: Christopher Brown
By Matt Miller, senior science writer
Update. January 27, 2014. The “polar vortex” may have passed, but frigid temperatures continue throughout the United States. This blog offers a look at how some wildlife might be affected. I’ve also added a section on forest pests since I’ve gotten a lot of inquiries about that.
The “polar vortex” that is bringing frigid temperatures to much of the United States is miserable for people.
But how do wild animals cope with these extreme conditions?
Many wildlife species, of course, are well adapted to thrive in even the coldest of temperatures.
Wild animals have ingenious ways of conserving energy, including hibernation, torpor and other physiological changes. Some simply migrate to warmer climes. Others have thick layers of fat or lush fur that helps them stay warm and dry.
But there are more unusual ways of staying warm. Ruffed grouse, for instance, will tunnel completely into the snow – in essence forming a warm igloo safe from cold temperatures and predators.
Naturalist Bernd Heinrich reports flying squirrels cramming into small tree holes, huddling together in a tight mass for warmth. (Heinrich’s book Winter World is a treasure trove of stories of how animals survive the cold).
There are species, though, that have recently expanded their range due to climate change or other factors. When a cold snap occurs, they’re ill prepared for it.
While it’s still too early to tell how this week’s weather will affect wildlife, research suggests some species will not fare well. Here are a few likely to be particularly vulnerable to the polar vortex.
Carolina wrens expand their range northwards until cold weather causes die-offs. Photo: Ken Thomas
While visiting my parents and brother in central Pennsylvania over the holidays, I enjoyed watching the antics of the Carolina wrens visiting their bird feeders. They’re fun birds to observe, always active and vocal.
They’re also somewhat unfamiliar to me: growing up, we’d never see them around the yard. Indeed, Carolina wrens have been expanding their range north over the past decades. They are not migrants: they live in a locale year round.
However, these birds don’t fare well during periods of very cold weather. Since they don’t migrate, they often perish.
This pattern has been recorded by the Great Backyard Bird Count, a citizen science initiative held each February where participants keep track of birds seen in backyards or nearby parks. In years with very cold weather, Carolina wren sightings diminish greatly — the birds have died off, and their range contracts.
The Carolina wren population eventually expands northwards again. It takes time. According to Great Backyard Bird Count reports, it can be ten years or more until Carolina wrens return to northern states in numbers following a cold weather die-off.
My parents tell me they have not seen the Carolina wrens this week, not a promising sign. The polar vortex will likely wipe out many of these birds in the East and Midwest. They’ll be back, but not immediately.
Opossums are prone to frostbite on their hairless tails. Photo: Chris Helzer/TNC
The opossum has been expanding its range north for decades. It’s particularly well adapted to humanity, able to survive amidst farms, city parks and suburbs.
It’s much less well adapted to winter weather.
Unlike some other mid-sized mammals that thrive in the presence of humans – think raccoons, red foxes, coyotes – opossums don’t have furry, protective tails. In fact, their tails (and ears) are hairless, making them particularly susceptible to frostbite and even hypothermia.
Many opossums bear physical evidence of surviving harsh winters – damaged ears and tails. Their tails often appear stumpy or as if something had bitten them off, but these are signs that their tails suffered frostbite.
Opossums will den for a few days to escape the cold, but they don’t hibernate. They have to feed periodically. Sometimes they’ll change their nocturnal habits and feed in daylight hours during the winter, to take advantage of warmer temperatures.
That doesn’t make much difference, though, when it’s -20 degrees Fahrenheit (as it was in parts of their range this week).
Expect to see a lot of tail-challenged opossums this spring.
Manatees require warm springs to get through cold spells. Photo: John Winfree/TNC
Perhaps hardest hit are animals like manatees that thrive in more tropical environments, but encounter chilly weather in the northern parts of their range. Florida, home to well-known populations of manatees, is also experiencing a cold spell this week.
Manatees require water 68 degrees or warmer. Despite looking rather plump, they have very little fat to protect them in cold water.
When they swim in cold water for long periods, they suffer from what is known as manatee cold stress syndrome – leading to starvation and death.
There are current reports of hundreds of manatees moving into warmer springs that remain a constant temperature. Fortunately, these springs are being closed to public access so the manatees can take refuge there without being further stressed by people.
These winter warm-water areas are vital to the continued survival of manatees in Florida.
Non-native green iguanas fell from the trees during Florida’s freezing temperatures in 2010. Photo: Matt Miller/TNC
In Florida, species like Burmese pythons and green iguanas can become invasive, posing serious threats to native wildlife. When these species are released into a new environment, they find lots of prey but none of their native predators. Their populations can grow rapidly.
Still, they’re not equipped for cold weather. Most conservationists consider this a good thing.
During the so-called “deep freeze” Florida experienced in 2010, there were frequent sensational media stories of iguanas dropping from trees. Most of these iguanas weren’t actually dead; they enter a catatonic state when the temperature drops to 37 degrees Fahrenheit.
There were similar stories of pythons dying by the thousands, although this may have been overstated – there are still plenty of non-native snakes in South Florida.
Zoologist Vladimir Dinets reports in his new book Dragon Songs that non-native spectacled caimans (a crocodilian species) pretty much disappeared from the state following the freeze.
It’s interesting to note that native alligators did just fine. But Dinets reports that dozens of American crocodiles, a native species, died due to the cold in 2010.
Cold weather can kill invasive forest pests, but please don’t move firewood to new locations — surviving pests can still be lurking there. Photo: Leigh Greenwood/TNC
Frigid temperatures might have another positive effect: killing invasive forest pests. These non-native pests can hammer forests but cold weather offers some hope of slowing the spread.
As Minnesota Public Radio reports, the emerald ash borer could suffer through the kill of a high percentage of emerald ash borer larvae. Since it was first confirmed in southern Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer has spread rapidly — now infesting more than 100,000 square miles. It devastates ash trees, and there’s no hope of eradication. But at least the cold weather might slow the spread, buying conservationists more time.
The Don’t Move Firewood blog also reports that the hemlock woolly adelgid, an insect devastating to eastern forests, is affected by cold weather. However, the temperature needs to drop below -22 degrees Fahrenheit before this pest begins dying in numbers.
Leigh Greenwood of Don’t Move Firewood notes that even the coldest weather won’t kill all forest pests, it will merely reduce their numbers. So please don’t move firewood to new locations; there may still be (living) invasive species lurking there, and you could spread the pests to new locations.
It will be interesting to learn what effects the “polar vortex” has on native and non-native wildlife. Are you seeing any impacts on wild creatures near your home? Your observations can help scientists learn more about how species fare in this cold weather.
Opinions expressed on Cool Green Science and in any corresponding comments are the personal opinions of the original authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Nature Conservancy.