Indonesia’s First Shark Sanctuary – Raja Ampat Leads the Way

The Raja Ampat government has set aside all of its 4 million hectares of coastal and marine waters as a shark sanctuary.

The Raja Ampat government has set aside all of its 4 million hectares of coastal and marine waters as a shark sanctuary.

This week has without a doubt been the highlight of my career as a marine conservationist. And, as someone who has had a long-term love affair with the world’s oceans, it’s been a life highlight as well.

On 20 February 2013, the Raja Ampat government officially announced that it has declared its entire 4 million hectares of coastal and marine waters a shark sanctuary.

This means that all harvesting of sharks is now prohibited in its waters. In addition, the sanctuary also gives full protection to a number ecologically and economically important ocean species, such as manta rays, dugongs, whales, turtles, dolphins and ornamental fish species.

Why is this important and why should we care?

Well, sharks have a really hard time in our oceans. Beyond the often over-amplified fear people have of sharks, they are also targeted for their high-priced fins or are caught accidently in fishing nets.

It is estimated that at least 26-73 million sharks are killed each year globally, mostly for their fins. Shark finning is one of the cruelest practices around—it involves throwing a still-breathing shark overboard with its fins cut off and its body bleeding into the water.

Shark finning is not only ecologically destructive, it's an incredibly cruel practice.

Shark finning is not only ecologically destructive, it’s an incredibly cruel practice.

Sharks are what we scientists call “apex predators,” which means they are at the top of the food chain and play an important role in maintaining healthy ecosystems.

Without top predators, ecosystems can be altered and become less productive—in some cases, they can even collapse. Any changes to an ecosystem will ultimately affect local fisheries, and therefore the food and livelihoods of local communities.

Local fisheries are important in Indonesia. At least 20 million people in Indonesia directly depends on fisheries for their livelihoods and as a source of protein.

At least 20 million people in Indonesia directly depending on fisheries for their livelihoods and as a source of protein; Raja Ampat offers a breakthrough policy for people and fish.

At least 20 million people in Indonesia directly depending on fisheries for their livelihoods and as a source of protein; Raja Ampat offers a breakthrough policy for people and fish.

Indonesia is currently the largest exporters of sharks and shark products in the world. Sharks are captured through local fisheries as well as as part of by-catch in industrial fisheries.

The declaration of Indonesia’s shark sanctuary by the Raja Ampat government is bold, and the government deserves international recognition for being proactive in protecting these animals in their waters.

The government has been thorough. They have done the math and it is clear that a live shark is worth much more than a dead one.

Shark diving can result in millions of dollars of tourism income annually, which is much more the money made from killing and selling a shark.

Plus, shark diving can benefit many people, whereas the killing of a shark benefits only a handful (and also has a decidedly nasty downside for the shark in question).

It was one of the highlights of my career to be asked to write an academic draft for the government law to protect sharks in Raja Ampat and to be a technical advisor to the government on the law.

Working with a large cast of dynamic actors from the fisheries agency, the law bureau and parliament members, we looked at all aspects of the issue—from the biological to the ecological to the social and to the economic—when we drafted the law.

Our hope now is that the shark sanctuary in Raja Ampat will inspire other regencies to follow suit and perhaps create a snowball or domino effect that will carry over to other parts of Indonesia and eventually other countries. That would make this career highlight look even better.

Nature Conservancy staff and partners show their thanks to the Raja Ampat government.

Nature Conservancy staff and partners show their thanks to the Raja Ampat government.

All photos by The Nature Conservancy. 

Opinions expressed on Cool Green Science and in any corresponding comments are the personal opinions of the original authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Nature Conservancy.


Posted In: Coral Reefs, Fish, Science

Sangeeta Mangubhai is a former marine scientist with The Nature Conservancy. She has 12 years of conservation science and management experience from Indonesia, Australia, the Pacific and East Africa. Dr. Mangubhai has a diverse set of skills and experiences in multi-objective marine protected area (MPA) design and management, conservation planning and strategy development. She has designed guidelines and practical tools for assessing the management effectiveness of MPAs. Sangeeta is also a specialist in designing monitoring programs to look at patterns of change in coral reef communities and assessing reef resilience to climate change. She has a strong interest in developing community-based monitoring and management systems that empower local users to make informed decisions about their resources. Her research interests include coral reproduction, reef resistance and resilience to coral bleaching, and recruitment and recovery processes on coral reefs. Sangeeta has a PhD from Southern Cross University in Australia, which she completed in Kenya.

Comments: Indonesia’s First Shark Sanctuary – Raja Ampat Leads the Way

  •  Comment from Barbara M Crowe

    Way to go. I hope many more follow your lead!

  •  Comment from Jay Odell

    4 million hectares = 15,444 square miles!
    A huge win for sharks and people.
    This historic action, followed by the recent historic CITES decision gives me hope that people can teach and learn the new shark math all over planet Ocean.
    Go TNC Indonesia Marine Progam!

  •  Comment from Natalie

    Awesome! I am so happy for sharks! (And has anyone seen The Shark Riddle? Great kids show educating viewers about sharks. It’s really cute and funny.

  •  Comment from BeastSavers

    We are shocked and amazed. So used to hearing all the horrible wildlife news out of Indonesia, this is a very welcome development. Congratulations and thank you!

    •  Comment from Sangeeta mangubhai

      Thanks beastsavers … it is great having a positive conservation story from Indonesia to inspire us and others …

  •  Comment from Sangeeta mangubhai

    We are hoping this will start a snowballing effect in Indonesia and to wider coral triangle.

  •  Comment from Margaret Bortolini

    To the government of Raja Ampat – thank you, thank you, thank you. Finally someone gets it and does something about it.

  •  Comment from Larry Jackson

    I spent two weeks diving in Raja Ampat in June of this year. We saw a few Wobbegongs and a Whale Shark, but no Gray, Whitetip or Blacktip Sharks. Hopefully this action by the Raja Ampat government will result in a return of normal shark populations.

  •  Comment from Ian Gray

    I did a week of 24 dives in Raja Empat back in 2004 at Irian/Papua Diving. One day, while diving near a Japanese Zero wreck, we came on some sharks, someone had flashed the shark sign. I realized as I came over a rise in the reef that there were indeed 8 or 9 sharks…lying on the sea floor having recently been finned. I touched a female shark, lying there, eyes open as always, belly full of young, and I wept. I am so happy that something is finally being done.

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